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护坡工程有哪些
护坡工程有哪些
What are the slope protection projects?
块石护坡
Rock revetment
岸坡较陡、风浪较大的情况下,或因为造景的需要,在园林中常用块石护坡。
In the case of steep bank slope, big wind and wave, or because of the need of landscape, the stone slope protection is often used in gardens.
在水面较大,坡面较高(2m以上)之时,则护坡多用干砌石块,用75号水泥砂浆勾缝。压顶石用75号浆砌块石。
When the water surface is larger and the slope surface is higher (more than 2m), the revetment is mostly made of dry stone blocks and joints are jointed with cement mortar No. 75. No. 75 mortar block stone is used for roof-pressing stone.
园林绿地护坡
Landscape greenbelt slope protection
①草皮护坡
(1) turf slope protection
当岸壁坡角在自然安息角以内,水面上缓坡在1:20—1:5间起伏变化是很美的。水面以上部分可用草皮护坡,利用密布土中的草根来固土,使土坡能够保持较大的坡度而不滑坡。
When the bank slope angle is within the natural rest angle, the fluctuation of the gentle slope on the water surface between 1:20 and 1:5 is very beautiful. The above part of the water surface can be protected by turf, and the grass roots in the dense soil can be used to consolidate the soil, so that the soil slope can maintain a larger slope without landslide.
②花坛式护坡
(2) Flower Bed Slope Protection
将园林坡地设计为倾斜的图案、文字类模纹花坛或其他花坛形式,既美化了坡地,又起到了护坡的作用。
Designing garden sloping land as inclined pattern, character pattern flower bed or other flower bed forms not only beautifies the sloping land, but also plays a role of slope protection.
石钉护坡
Rock nail slope protection
在坡度较大的坡地上,用石钉均匀地钉入地面,使坡面土壤的密实度增长,抗坍塌的能力也随之增强。
On the slopes with larger slopes, stone nails are evenly nailed into the ground, which increases the density of the soil on the slopes and enhances the ability to resist collapse.
预制框格护坡
Prefabricated frame slope protection
用预制的混凝土框格,覆盖、固定在陡坡坡面;坡面上仍可种草种树。当坡面很高、坡度很大时,优点比较明显。因此,这种护坡最适于较高的道路边坡、水坝边坡、河堤边坡等的陡坡。
Prefabricated concrete frame is used to cover and fix the steep slope; grass and trees can still be planted on the slope. When the slope is very high and the slope is very large, the advantages are obvious. Therefore, this kind of slope protection is most suitable for steep slopes such as high road slopes, dam slopes and river embankment slopes.
截水沟护坡
Slope protection of interception ditch
为了防止地表径流直接冲刷坡面,而在坡的上端设置一条小水沟,以阻截、汇集地表水,从而保护坡面。
In order to prevent surface runoff from scouring the slope directly, a small ditch is set up at the upper end of the slope to intercept and collect surface water so as to protect the slope.
编柳抛石护坡
Braided willow riprap slope protection
采用新截取的柳条十字交叉编织。编柳空格内抛填厚0.2—0.4m的块石,块石下设厚10—20cm的砾石层以利于排水和减少土壤流失。厚度为30—50cm。柳条发芽便成为较坚固的护坡设施。
New intercepted wicker cross knitting. In order to drain water and reduce soil loss, a gravel layer with a thickness ofwanxiang.75ix.com kongyaji.37ix.com.cnfensuiji.75ix.comgunyaji.75ix.cn hsyinshua.75ix.com tsmenchuang.75ix.com 10-20 cm is thrown into the space of Braided Willow with a thickness of 0.2-0.4 M. Thickness is 30-50 cm. Willow germination becomes a more solid slope protection facility.
坡面构造
Slope structure
设计
Design
护坡设计主要考虑的是:如何防止陡坡的滑坡以及如何减少水土流失。
The main consideration of slope protection design is how to prevent landslides on steep slopes and how to reduce soil erosion.
01
01
植被护坡的坡面设计
Slope design of vegetation slope protection
①植被层
(1) Vegetation layer
草坪护坡植被层厚15—45cm;用花坛护坡的,植被层厚25—60cm;用灌木丛护坡,则灌木层厚45—180cm。植被层一般不用乔木做护坡植物,因乔木重心较高,有时可因树倒而使坡面坍塌。在设计中,最好选用须根系的植物,其护坡固土作用比较好。
The vegetation layer thickness of lawn slope protection is 15-45 cm, that of flower bed slope protection is 25-60 cm, and that of shrub slope protection is 45-180 cm. The vegetation layer generally does not use trees as slope protection plants, because the tree center of gravity is higher, sometimes the slope may collapse because of the collapse of trees. In the design, it is better to choose the plant with root system, which has better effect of slope protection and soil consolidation.
②根系表土层
(2) Root topsoil
若坡度太大,达到60°以上时,坡面土壤应先整细并稍稍拍实,www.sanmenxiabanjia.cnwww.hefeibanjia.net.cnwww.dingzhoubaojie.cnwww.dingzhoubaojie.com
www.fuyangbanjia.cnwww.bozhoubanjia.com.cn然后在表面铺上一层铁丝护坡网,最后才撒播草种或栽种草丛、花苗。用灌木护坡,坡面则可先整理成小型阶梯状,以方便栽种树木和积蓄雨水。
If the slope is too large, the soil on the slope should be fined and photographed slightly before reaching 60 degrees or more. www.sanmenxiabanjia.cn www.hefeibanjia.net.cn www.dingzhoubaojie.cn www.dingzhoubaojie.com www.fuyangbanjia.cn www.bozhoubanjia.com.cn, then a layer of wire slope protection net is laid on the surface. Finally, grass or grass bushes and flower seedlings are planted. With shrub slope protection, the slope surface can be arranged into small steps to facilitate tree planting and rainwater storage.
③底土层
(3) Subsoil
坡面的底土一般应拍打结实,但也可不作任何处理。
The subsoil on the slope should be beaten and compacted, but it can not be treated at all.
02
02
预制框格护坡的坡面设计
Slope Surface Design of Prefabricated Frame Slope Protection
有混凝土、塑料、铁件、金属网等材料制作的。框格一般是预制生产的。用锚和矮桩固定后,再往框格中填满肥沃土壤,土要填得高于框格。以免下雨时流水深入框格下方,冲刷走框底泥土,使框格悬空。
It is made of concrete, plastics, iron, metal mesh and other materials. Frames are usually prefabricated. Fixed with anchors and short piles, then fill the frame with fertile soil, which is higher than the frame. In case of rain, the flow of water goes deep under the frame, scouring away the soil at the bottom of the frame, and making the frame hang in the air.
03
03
护坡的截水沟设计
Design of cut-off ditch for slope protection
截水沟一般设在坡顶,与等高线平行。沟宽20—45cm,深20—30cm,用砖砌成。沟底、沟内壁用1:2水泥砂浆抹面。为了不破坏坡面的美观,可将截水沟设计为盲沟。
The interception ditch is usually located on the top of the slope, parallel to the contour line. The ditch is 20-45 cm wide and 20-30 cm deep. It is made of bricks. The bottom and inner wall of the ditch are coated with 1:2 cement mortar. In order not to destroy the beauty of the slope, the cut-off ditch can be designed as a blind ditch.
园林护坡既是一种土方工程,又是一种绿化工程,在实际工程建设中,这两方面的工作是紧密联系在一起的。
Landscape slope protection is not only a kind of earthwork engineering, but also a kind of greening engineering. In practical engineering construction, the two aspects of work are closely linked.

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